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Glossary

Contents

Absolute poverty

The degree of poverty below which the minimal requirements for survival are not being met. This is a fixed measure in terms of a minimum calorific requirements plus essential non-food components.

Source: Asian Development Bank. Monitoring ADB’s Poverty Reduction Impact: Appendix 1 - Poverty Definition, Measurement, and Analysis. http://www.adb.org/Documents/Handbooks/Analysis-Processes/appendix01.pdf

Absolute poverty line

An absolute standard of what households should be able to count on in order to meet their basic needs. For monetary measures, the absolute poverty line is often based on estimates of the cost of basic food needs (i.e. the cost a nutritional basket considered minimal for the healthy survival of a typical family), to which a provision is added for non-food needs.

Source: Asian Development Bank. Monitoring ADB’s Poverty Reduction Impact: Appendix 1 - Poverty Definition, Measurement, and Analysis. http://www.adb.org/Documents/Handbooks/Analysis-Processes/appendix01.pdf

Activity

Actions taken or work performed through which inputs, such as funds, technical assistance and other types of resources are mobilized to produce specific outputs. Includes projects and programmes, cash transfers, deliveries of goods, training courses, research projects, debt relief operations and contributions to non-governmental organisations.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002), Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Adaptation

Adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment. Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.

Source: IPCC Third Assessment Report. Annex B. Glossary of Terms. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/glossary/tar-ipcc-terms-en.pdf

Administrative unit

In the context of the PPS, this refers to the name of the administrative unit (i.e. district, province, region, etc.) that is targeted by a project, programme or initiative.

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

A radiation-detection imager that can be used for remotely determining cloud cover and the surface temperature. Note that the term surface can mean the surface of the Earth, the upper surfaces of clouds, or the surface of a body of water. The latest AVHRR instrument version is AVHRR/3. (Source: NOAA Satellite and Information Service – National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). http://noaasis.noaa.gov/NOAASIS/ml/avhrr.html )

Aerial photo

A photograph of the Earth’s surface taken from an elevated position. This refers to images in which the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure. Platforms for aerial photography include aircraft, helicopters, balloons, rockets, etc.

The combination of related categories, usually within a common branch of a hierarchy, to provide information at a broader level to that at which detailed observations are taken.

Source: OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms. http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm

Area size

In the context of the PPS, this refers to the total area targeted by a project, programme or initiative, expressed in number of hectares.

Attribution

The ascription of a causal link between observed (or expected to be observed) changes and a specific intervention. Note: Attribution refers to that which is to be credited for the observed changes or results achieved. It represents the extent to which observed development effects can be attributed to a specific intervention or to the performance of one or more partner taking account of other interventions, (anticipated or unanticipated) confounding factors, or external shocks.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Baseline

Point of reference against which measurements of an indicator are compared and changes monitored. The ideal baseline is the state of an indicator at an historical point in time, e.g. the value of an indicator at a set year.

Benchmark

Reference point or standard against which performance or achievements can be assessed.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Beneficiaries

Individuals, groups, or organizations, whether targeted or not, that benefit, directly or indirectly, from the development intervention.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Beneficiary country/Sub-region

Country(ies), subregion or region benefiting from a given project, programme or initiative.

Source: adapted from OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Best practices

Measures, methods or activities that perform best or achieve the highest impact according to predefined criteria assessed through a validation process. In the context of the UNCCD, best practices are measures, methods or activities that are considered successful in terms of achieving desired outcomes (good performance) and contributing to expected impacts formulated in the 10-year strategic plan and framework to enhance the implementation of the Convention (The Strategy).

See also ‘Practice’ and ‘Good practice’.

Bilateral official development assistance (BODA)

Official development assistance provided by bilateral donors to aid recipient countries.

Capacity building, capacity development

For the purpose of UNCCD reporting, capacity building and capacity development are equivalent terms, which both refer to the process by which countries obtain, strengthen and maintain their capability to meet the obligations laid down by the Convention and the requirements of the Strategy.

The GEF has identified five main areas of capacity building/capacity development:

  • enhance the capacities of stakeholders to engage throughout the consultative process;
  • generate, access, and use information and knowledge;
  • strengthen capacities for developing policy and legislative frameworks;
  • strengthen capacities for implementing and managing Convention guidelines;
  • enhance capacities for monitoring and evaluating environmental impacts and trends.

Source: adapted from The GEF. Strategic approach to enhance capacity building. http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/documents/C.22.8%20Strategic%20Approach%20to%20Capacity%20Building%20FINAL.pdf ;

UNDP. Governance for sustainable human development. A UNDP policy document. http://mirror.undp.org/magnet/policy/glossary.htm and

GEF,UNEP, UNDP. The NCSA Synthesis Report. http://www.thegef.org/gef/pubs/NCSA

Capacity-building initiative

Targeted programme or project having DLDD-related capacity building as a major objective.

Charitable donation

Charitable donations include financial contributions and in-kind donations of goods and services. Pricing discounts do not count as charitable donations. Only free services are considered to be in-kind donations.

Source: adapted from IRIS 2.0 framework. Impact Reporting & Investment Standards. http://iris.thegiin.org/glossary

Civil society organizations (CSOs)

Organizations belonging to the following thematic constituencies: Environmental non-governmental organizations, Local government and municipal authorities, Indigenous people’s organizations, Youth organizations, Research-oriented and independent non-governmental organizations, Business and industry non-governmental organizations, Trade union non-governmental organizations, Farmers organizations and Women and gender organizations.

Co-financing (organizations)

Organizations that participate in the funding of a programme or project.

Commitment

See ‘Financial commitment

Commitment date

The date on which a financial commitment in support of a project, programme or other initiative has been formally approved by the funding source or extending organization.

Completion date

The date on which a project, programme or initiative has been completed or is expected to be completed. In the case of a financial commitment, the completion date refers to the date by which the funding was or is expected to be utilized by the recipient organization.

Component

A specific area of investment within a project, programme or initiative. Components are usually described in project documents with a specific description, logical framework and assigned cost value.

Consolidated indicators (CONS)

Proposed consolidated indicators for the operational objectives of The Strategy.

Consumption

An activity in which goods or services are used up for the satisfaction of individual or collective human needs or wants.

Source: OECD Glossary of Statistic Terms. http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=429

Consumption survey

A survey monitoring the use of goods and services at individual, household and national level. Food consumption surveys (i.e. food intake surveys or dietary surveys) are the most common types of consumption surveys. They monitor food use by data collection at three different levels: (1) At the national level, described by supply data such as food balance sheets. These results express food availability rather than food consumption in a nation; (2) Measures food use within a household, and (3) Assesses individual intake of foods and beverages.

Source: Encyclopedia of Food & Culture. http://www.enotes.com/food-consumption-surveys-reference/food-consumption-surveys

Convention processes

At the field level: programmes and projects relating to desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD). At the institutional level: meetings of the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC), meetings of the COP, meetings at regional level, and processes relating to the Integrated Financing Strategy (IFS).

See also ‘Integrated Financing Strategy’.

Cost-benefit analysis

A technique designed to determine the feasibility of a project or plan by quantifying its costs and benefits. As its name suggests, it compares the values of all benefits from the action under consideration and the costs associated with it.

Source: OECD Glossary of Statistic Terms. http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm

Currency

As per the Global Mechanism process, the currency amount is to be given in local currency. If a currency exchange is approximated, the date of the exchange rate needs to be given.

Data

Characteristics of information, usually numerical, that are collected through observation.

Source: OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms.http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm

Data analysis

The process of transforming data into usable information which aims to answer specific questions.

Source: OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms. http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm

Data source

Name of institution, individual or group of individuals owning the original data set.

Dataset

An organized collection of data.

Source: OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms. http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm

Decisions and documents

Any decision directly or indirectly related to DLDD; any document containing declarations, conclusions and recommendations related to DLDD.

Deforestation

The direct human-induced conversion of forested land to non-forested land.

Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance (GPG) for Land use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF). http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Glossary_Acronyms_BasicInfo/Glossary.pdf

Desertification

Land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities.

Source. UNCCD. http://www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/Pages/Text-overview.aspx

Desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD)

Summarizes the combined impacts of desertification, land degradation and drought.

See also ‘Desertification’, ‘Land degradation’ and ‘Drought’.

Development finance institution

A government-controlled institution that invest in projects with a double bottom line objective of stimulating development in developing countries and emerging economies while remaining a financially viable institution.

Source: JP Morgan ( 2010). Impact Investments – An Emerging Asset Class. J.P. Morgan Global Research

Double (or triple) bottom line

The simultaneous pursuit of a social enterprise or business to achieve financial, social and/or environmental returns on investment.

Source: JP Morgan ( 2010). Impact Investments – An Emerging Asset Class. J.P. Morgan Global Research

Driver

Any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem.

Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Current State & Trends Assessment Report. http://www.maweb.org/en/Condition.aspx

Drought

A naturally occurring phenomenon that exists when precipitation has been significantly below normal recorded levels, causing serious hydrological imbalances that adversely affect land resource production systems.

Meteorological drought is defined solely on the basis of the degree of dryness (often in comparison to some normal or average amount) and the duration of the dry period” and must be region-specific.

Agricultural drought focuses on factors such as differences between actual and potential evapo-transpiration and soil-water deficits, are crop-specific and depend heavily on the timing of rain and dry periods relative to crop-cycles. Agricultural droughts can therefore occur in the absence of meteorological drought, and vice versa.

Hydrological drought is defined by deficiencies in surface and sub-surface water supplies, which lead to a lack of water availability to meet normal and specific water demands. Hydrological or water supply drought occurs less frequently than agricultural drought because considerable time elapses between precipitation deficiencies and declines in ground water and reservoir levels. Likewise, these components of the hydrologic system are usually the last to recover from longer term droughts.

Source: http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/lead/alive_toolkit/pages/pageB_drought_hazard_def.html

Drylands

Arid, semi-arid or dry sub-humid areas, in which the ratio of mean annual precipitation to mean annual potential evapo-transpiration lies between 0.05 and 0.65. Areas with a ratio of less than 0.05 are considered hyper-arid deserts.

Source: UNCCD. ICCD/CRIC(9)/CRP.1

Duration

In the context of the SFA, it means the time frame within which the available financing is expected to be utilized.

Ecosystem

A dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit.

Source: CBD. http://www.cbd.int/ecosystem/description.shtml

Ecosystem services

Benefits obtained from ecosystems. These include: a) provisioning services such as food and water; b) regulating services such as flood and disease control; c) cultural services such as spiritual, recreational, and cultural benefits; and d) supporting services, such as nutrient cycling, that maintain the conditions for life on Earth.

Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). http://www.maweb.org/en/Global.aspx

Eco-tourism

Responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strive to be low impact and (often) small scale (as an alternative to mass tourism). Its purpose is to educate the traveller; provide funds for ecological conservation; directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and foster respect for different cultures and for human rights.

Source: Untamed Path http://www.untamedpath.com/Ecotourism/defining.html

Education initiatives

Educational activities provided within the system of schools, colleges, universities and other formal educational institutions that normally constitutes a continuous ‘ladder’ of full-time education for children and young people, generally beginning at age five to seven and continuing up to 20 or 25 years old; as well as any other organized and sustained educational activities which may take place both within and outside educational institutions, and may cater to persons of all ages, which, depending on country contexts, may cover educational programmes relating to life skills, work skills and general culture.

Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.http://www.uis.unesco.org/glossary/Term.aspx?name=Formal%20Education&lang=en&mode=all

Effectiveness

The extent to which the investment objectives were achieved, or are expected to be achieved, taking into account their relative importance.

Source: adapted from the OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results-Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf and from IFAD (2009). Evaluation Manual: Methodology and Processes. http://www.ifad.org/evaluation/process_methodology/index.htm

Efficiency

A measure of how financial and other economically valuable resources (e.g. expertise, know-how, time, etc.) are converted into results.

Source: adapted from the OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results-Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf and from IFAD (2009). Evaluation Manual: Methodology and Processes. http://www.ifad.org/evaluation/process_methodology/index.htm

Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)

An 'optimized' vegetation index for use with remote sensing data, similar to NDVI. It is designed to enhance the vegetation signal with improved sensitivity in high biomass regions.

Source: Huet et al. (2002) Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices. Remote Sensing of Environment, 83, 195–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00096-2.

e-SMART

Criteria applied for the selection of UNCCD performance indicators and impact indicators for strategic objective 4. ‘e-SMART’ stands for economic – Specific – Measurable – Achievable – Relevant –Time-bound.

  • Economic: The data and information required for the indicator are available at a reasonable cost. The cost is affordable and worthwhile.
  • Specific: The indicator clearly and directly relates to the outcome. It is described without ambiguities. Parties have a common understanding of the indicator.
  • Measurable: The indicator is preferably quantifiable and objectively verifiable. Parties have a common understanding of the ways of measuring the indicator.
  • Achievable: The required data and information can actually be collected.
  • Relevant: The indicator must provide information which is relevant to the process and its stakeholders.
  • Time-bound: The indicator is time-referenced, and is thus able to reflect changes. It can be reported at the requested time.

Source: ICCD/CRIC(8)/5/Add.1. http://www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/official-documents/Pages/SymbolDetail.aspx?ctx=CRIC%288%29&k=ICCD/CRIC%288%29/5/Add.1

Evaluation

Systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing or completed project, program, or policy, and of its design, implementation, and results, to determine the relevance and fulfilment of objectives, development efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and sustainability. An evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful, so that lessons learned can be incorporated into the decision-making process of both recipients and donors.

Source: OECD-DAC Joint Venture on Managing for Development Results (2008) Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practice in Managing for Development Results, 3rd edition

Executing agency(ies)

Organization(s) in charge of the execution of a project, programme or initiative. This may be a local, national, regional or international organization.

Expected or achieved results

In the context of the PPS, expected or achieved results refer to the products, capital goods and services which result from a project or programme. It may also include changes resulting from the project or programme’s output which are relevant to the achievement of outcomes, such as the likely or achieved short-term and medium-term effects.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002), Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Expert knowledge

Substantive information on a particular topic that is not widely known by others. An expert is someone who holds this knowledge and who is often referred to in its interpretation. Predictions by experts of what may happen in a particular context are referred to as expert judgments.

Field survey

Collection and gathering of information at the local level by conducting primary surveys through observation, sketching, measurement, interviews, etc.

Finalized

Approved by the respective governments or responsible authorities.

Financial commitment

A financial commitment (or “commitment”) is a firm obligation expressed in an agreement or equivalent contract and supported by the availability of public funds, undertaken by the government, an official agency of the reporting country or an international organisation, to furnish assistance of a specified amount under agreed financial terms and conditions and for specific purposes, for the benefit of a recipient country.

Source: OECD, Geographical distribution of financial flows to developing countries

Foreign direct investment

A category of investment that reflects the objective of establishing a lasting interest by a resident enterprise in one economy (direct investor) in an enterprise (direct investment enterprise) that is resident in an economy other than that of the direct investor. The lasting interest implies the existence of a long-term relationship between the direct investor and the direct investment enterprise and a significant degree of influence on the management of the enterprise.

Source: OECD, Glossary of Foreign Direct Investment Terms and Definitions http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/56/1/2487495.pdf

Formulation of an aligned NAP

Preparation of the NAP through a consultative and participatory process, prior to the formal approval by the national body responsible for the implementation of the Convention, taking into account the specific requirements of The Strategy.

See also ‘NAP formulation’ and ‘NAP alignment

Fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FAPAR)

The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by a vegetation canopy. PAR is the solar radiation reaching the canopy in the 0.4–0.7 ?m wavelength region. Ground-based estimates of FAPAR require the simultaneous measurement of PAR above and below the canopy, and FAPAR assessments are retrieved from space remote sensing platforms using physically-based inverse methods. Most of these derived products represent only the fraction absorbed by the green part of the leaf canopy.

Source: Gobron, N., Verstraete M.M. (2009). Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). http://www.fao.org/gtos/doc/ECVs/T10/T10.pdf

Funding Organization

An organization that has made a financial commitment or contribution in the reporting period.

Funding type

The combination of the channel through which the funds are made available by the funding organization to that willing to develop a project – which can be the same as the funding organization ­­ and the purpose of the funding.

The main funding types are: Basket Funding, Budget Authority (Discretionary and Mandatory), Loans (commercial or concessional), Debt Swap, General Budget Support and Sectoral Budget Support, Grants.

Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS)

A data set storing a global measure of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) covering a 22-year period. NDVI in general is a ratioed measure of vegetation and is used in climate models and biogeochemical models to calculate photosynthesis, the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the land surface, land-surface evapo-transpiration and the absorption and release of energy by the land surface. This data set provides improved results based on corrections for calibration, view geometry, volcanic aerosols, and other effects not related to actual vegetation change.

Source: http://gcmd.nasa.gov/records/GCMD_GLCF_GIMMS.html )

Good practices

Measures, methods or activities that match a specific objective or are suitable for a specific natural and human environment.

See also ‘Practice’ and ‘Best practices’.

Grant

Financial transfers made in cash, goods or services where no repayment is required.

Grant element

Characteristics which reflects the financial terms of a transaction: interest rate, maturity (interval to final repayment) and grace period (interval to first repayment of capital). It is a measure of the concessionality (softness) of a loan. The extent of concessionality can be measured either as the benefit to the borrower, or the opportunity cost to the lender. Both benefit and opportunity costs depend on the interest rate and duration of the loan.

Source: OECD, Geographical distribution of financial flows to developing countries

Greenness

The degree to which vegetation absorbs photosynthetically active radiation. It is usually quantified using the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI).

Source: Huet et al. (2002) Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices. Remote Sensing of Environment, 83, 195–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00096-2

Gross domestic product (GDP), purchasing power parity (PPP)

The sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. GDP, PPP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the US dollar has in the United States. Data are in constant or in current international dollars.

Source: Adapted from World Bank definitions

Ground truth

Data obtained by measurements on the ground, usually as validation for, e.g., satellite data. Ground-truthing describes the process of obtaining such data.

Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance (GPG) for Land use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF). http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Glossary_Acronyms_BasicInfo/Glossary.pdf

Human resources

Describe the individuals who make up the workforce of an organization, although it is also applied in labor economics to, for example, business sectors or even whole nations. Human resources is also the name of the function within an organization charged with the overall responsibility for implementing strategies and policies relating to the management of individuals (i.e. the human resources).

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_resources

Identification code (ID)

Number or acronym given to a project, programme or other initiative by the funding agency(ies).

Impact investment

Making investments to generate positive impact beyond financial return, in addition to upholding strict environmental and social governance policies.

Source: JP Morgan ( 2010). Impact Investments – An Emerging Asset Class. J.P. Morgan Global Research

Impacts

The positive and negative primary and secondary long-term effects—both intended and unintended—produced directly or indirectly by an intervention.

Source: OECD-DAC Joint Venture on Managing for Development Results (2008.) Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practice in Managing for Development Results, 3rd edition

Incentive

A tangible or intangible reward, financial or non-financial, meant to encourage a person or group to behave in a certain way, to do certain things, or to achieve certain goals.

In the context of the UNCCD implementation, incentives may be aimed, for example, at facilitating the use of innovative technologies and best practices for SLM. Typical class of incentives may include:

  • Policy or regulatory incentives (for example, relating to market requirements and regulations, import/export, foreign investment, research and development support, etc.).
  • Financial incentives (for example, preferential rates, State aid, subsidies, cash grants, loan guarantees, etc.).
  • Fiscal incentives (for example, exemption from or reduction of taxes, duties, fees, etc.).

Income

Consumption and change in net worth. Income is generally used as a measure of welfare in developed countries, however it tends to be seriously understated in less-developed countries. Consumption is less understated and comes closer to measuring permanent income.

Source: World Bank Poverty Manual. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PGLP/Resources/PMch2.pdf

Income survey

Investigation about the maximum amount of income that an individual, a household, a given population or other unit can consume without reducing its real net worth.

Indicator

An indicator is a quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple and reliable means to measure achievement, to reflect the changes connected to an intervention, or to help assess the performance of a development actor.

Source: OECD-DAC Joint Venture on Managing for Development Results (2008.) Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practice in Managing for Development Results, 3rd edition

Indicator metadata

Information pertaining to the indicator describing the rationale for the selection of that indicator, the level of compliance of the indicator to the e-SMART criteria, the way to collect information (data needed, method of computation, unit of measurement, data sources), the geographical level of application of the indicator, and the reporting entities in charge.

Source: ICCD/CRIC(8)/5/Add.2

Information and communication technology (ICT)

Forms of technology that are used to transmit, store, create, display, share or exchange information by electronic means, including radio, television, video, DVD, telephone, satellite systems, computer and network hardware and software; as well as the equipment and services associated with these technologies, such as videoconferencing, e-mail and blogs.

Source: UNESCO website http://www.unescobkk.org/education/ict/technologies

Information events

All events implying recordable attendance, such as meetings, workshops, seminars, public debates, exhibitions, educational programmes and similar, aimed at raising awareness on DLDD and/or synergies with climate change and biodiversity at national level. Only events organized by the main DLDD stakeholders and of which NFPs have been informed should be considered.

Initiative

An activity differing from a typical project or programme, and which has been funded within the reporting period (e.g. a publication, or the organization of an event). Action taken or work performed through which inputs such as funds, technical assistance and other types of resources are mobilized in order to produce specific outputs.

Innovation

A process that adds value or solves a problem in new ways. To qualify as an innovation, a product, idea, or approach needs to be new to its context, useful and cost-effective in relation to a goal and able to “stick” after pilot testing. Innovations may be in the area of technology, development approaches, institutional arrangements, financial instruments, channels or mechanisms, and so on.

Source: adapted from IFAD innovation strategy, 2007

Inputs

The financial, human, and material resources used for an intervention.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Integrated Financing Strategy (IFS)

Methodological framework aligned with the priorities of the affected country, and developed by the Global Mechanism to assist affected countries in their efforts to mobilize financial resources. Such strategies may be pursued by various donors/organizations within different approaches and/or frameworks. They can be developed as a tool for addressing institutional, environmental, socio-economic and financial constraints that hinder full UNCCD implementation within a country. Such an approach serves to address country priorities and tackles multiple factors within a chain of activities falling under one integrated and comprehensive umbrella programme. An accompanying set of new financing modalities, procedures and instruments has emerged within the IFSs.

Source: Global Mechanism (2008). Integrated Financing Strategies for Sustainable Land Management. www.global-mechanism.org/dynamic/documents/document_file/ifs_eweb.pdf

Integrated investment framework (IIF)

A programmatic financing approach whereby the governments of affected country Parties identify national priorities in terms of investment needs and financing resources for the implementation of the Convention.

In a given country, the integrated investment framework identifies the projects, programmes and priority actions, based on the priorities included in the NAP and taking into account the cross-cutting nature of the investments on DLDD and SLM (for example, the benefits for food security and rural poverty reduction, adaptation to climate change, territorial planning and prevention of natural disasters).

The framework may be summarized in a document, outlining priority interventions, expected outcomes and activities, lead responsibilities and the required financial resources, as well as funding sources (including contributions from development partners) and financial delivery mechanisms.

See also ‘Integrated Financial Strategy’.

Source: Modified from The Global Mechanism (2010). Knowledge exchange programme on Aid for Trade finance for sustainable land management. A manual for least developed countries. http://www.global-mechanism.org/dynamic/documents/document_file/trade-manual_final_13-december-2010.pdf

Intergovernmental governing body

An intergovernmental organization is the type of organization most closely associated with the term 'international organization'. These are organizations that are made up primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), notably the United Nations. An intergovernmental governing body is the decision-making body of the intergovernmental organizations, such as the United Nations General Assembly, the General Assembly and the Council of the GEF or the COP of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (CBD, UNFCCC).

International organization

An international organization which either has an international membership or presence. There are two main types:

  1. International non-governmental organizations (INGOs): non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that operate internationally;
  2. Intergovernmental organizations, also known as international governmental organizations (IGOs).

Decisions from international organizations, institutions and authorities comprise decisions taken by organizations, which work at international level but are not intergovernmental, such as IUCN. Documents from international organizations, institutions and authorities also comprise those documents emanating from intergovernmental organizations, such as FAO or UNEP, which are not related to their intergovernmental decision-making processes.

Investment

In finance, investment is putting money into something with the expectation of gaining revenue, that upon thorough analysis, has a high degree of security of principle, as well as security of return, within an expected period of time.

In economics, investment is the amount purchased per unit time of goods which are not consumed but are to be used for future production.

In the framework of the PRAIS system, investment refers to the use of financial, institutional, human and technical resources for projects, programmes and other relevant activities related to UNCCD implementation.

Source: Graham, B. & Dodd, D.(1951) Security Analysis, 3rd ed., New York and London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

Joint Liaison Group (JLG)

Encompasses the secretariats of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the UNCCD (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It aims to enhance coordination between the three conventions, exploring options for cooperation and synergistic action.

Joint planning/ programming initiatives

National activities and instruments in place, aimed at fostering synergies among the three Rio conventions. These may include, inter alia:

  • Evaluation of existing national plans on DLDD, biodiversity and climate change to identify gaps in synergies;
  • Identification of relevant sectors and policies that could benefit from the cooperation on biodiversity, DLDD and climate change;
  • Review of existing national plans and policies, as appropriate, to enhance cooperation;
  • Capacity building initiatives at the institutional and scientific levels, as well as awareness raising initiatives involving ministerial staff, other policy makers and non-governmental organizations with a responsibility or an interest in the implementation of the three Rio conventions and other relevant conventions.

Source: Adapted from UNEP/CBD/COP/DEC/IX/16, Annex II: indicative list of activities by Parties to promote synergies among the Rio Conventions

Knowledge resources

Resources and tools such as communication materials, information, traditional knowledge and know-how.

Knowledge-sharing system

A web-based system explicitly designed for the management and sharing of knowledge (such as data, information, tools, skills, expertise, best practices and success stories) among members within an organization or a network (for example, the PRAIS portal).

Land cover

Physical material at the surface of the earth.

Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance (GPG) for Land use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) . http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Glossary_Acronyms_BasicInfo/Glossary.pdf

Land Cover Classification System (LCCS)

Comprehensive, standardized a priori classification system, developed by the FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization), designed to meet specific user requirements, and created for mapping exercises. It uses a set of independent diagnostic criteria that allow correlation with existing classifications and legends. Land cover classes are defined by a combination of a set of independent diagnostic criteria - the so-called classifiers - that are hierarchically arranged to assure a high degree of geographical accuracy.

Source: European Commission Joint Research Centre. http://marswiki.jrc.ec.europa.eu/wikicap/index.php/FAO_Land_Cover_Classification_System

Land degradation

Reduction or loss, in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rainfed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture, forest and woodlands resulting from land uses or from a process or combination of processes, including processes arising from human activities and habitation patterns, such as:

  1. soil erosion caused by wind and/or water;
  2. deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil; and
  3. long-term loss of natural vegetation.

Source: http://www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/Pages/Text-overview.aspx

Land productivity

In relation to agriculture (or, in agro-ecosystems), land productivity (in different land cover and use systems) can be defined as the annual production of major crops and vegetation types (tonnes per ha of major crop per unit of physical inputs (i.e. water, agrochemicals).

Land use

The type of activity being carried out on a unit of land.

Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance (GPG) for Land use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF). http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Glossary_Acronyms_BasicInfo/Glossary.pdf

Leveraging

The use of financial resources to increase the return on investments. Leverage is a factor by which a lever multiplies a force.

Loan

Financial transfer for which repayment is required.

Mainstreaming

Integration of adaptation objectives, strategies, policies, measures or operations such that they become part of the national and regional development policies, processes and budgets at all levels and stages.

Source: UNDP (2005). Adaptation Policy Frameworks (APF) for Climate Change: Developing Strategies, Policies and Measures

Media products

Press articles, radio and television programmes (such as documentaries).

Method of collection

Refers to the method used by the lead agencies or any national statistical institution to compile data on the indicator.

Source: OECD Methodological Note. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/3/45/1896978.pdf

Metric

A practical set of procedures to measure/populate an indicator and to interpret the values obtained.

Microfinance

The provision of a broad range of financial services, such as deposits, loans, payment services, money transfers, and insurance to poor and low income households and their microenterprises.

Source: Dalberg Global Development Advisors (2011). Impact investing in West Africa. JP Morgan and the Rockefeller Foundation

Minimum Mapping Unit

For a given map scale, the size or dimension below which a long narrow feature is represented as a line and a small area as a point. For example, streams and rivers will be represented as lines if their width is less than .10 inch, and polygons smaller than .125 inch on a side will be represented as a point.

Source: http://www.landinfo.com/resources_dictionaryMP.htm

Mitigation

In the context of drought, activities related to the prediction of drought and intended to reduce the vulnerability of society and natural systems to drought as it relates to combating desertification.

In the context of climate change, a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.

Source: http://www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/Pages/Text-overview.aspx and http://unfccc.int/essential_background/glossary/items/3666.php#M

Monitoring system

An organized set of processes and activities aimed at carrying out systematic and regular measurements, collecting and processing data and information on a particular phenomenon with the purpose of analysing its status or observing its behaviour over time (such as environmental monitoring: the continuous and systematic measurement of the quality of air, soil, biota and water resources).

See also ‘Monitoring system specifically dedicated to DLDD’, ‘Monitoring system partially covering DLDD’.

Monitoring system partially covering DLDD

A monitoring system which, although not specifically designed for the systematic observation of DLDD processes, includes measuring, gathering and processing of information on aspects relevant to DLDD monitoring (such as environmental and meteorological monitoring systems).

See also ‘Monitoring system specifically dedicated to DLDD’, ‘Monitoring system’.

Monitoring system specifically dedicated to DLDD

A monitoring system which is specifically designed for the continuous and systematic monitoring of DLDD processes. It integrates the observation of both environmental and socio-economic aspects of DLDD (e.g. the monitoring of the status of soil and water resources, land degradation, water scarcity and drought events, social and economic impacts on affected populations, socio-economic drivers and pressures). Such a system may also comprise the gathering and processing of information for the evaluation of DLDD-relevant programmes and policy measures.

See also ‘Monitoring system’, ’Monitoring system partially covering DLDD’.

Name of activity funded

Name or title of the activity, project, programme or initiative supported in the reporting period through a financial commitment.

NAP adoption

Formal approval of the NAP by the national body responsible for the implementation of the Convention.

NAP alignment

Revision of the NAP taking into account the specific requirements of The Strategy.

See also ‘Formulation of an aligned NAP’.

NAP formulation

Preparation of the NAP through a consultative and participatory process, prior to the formal approval by the national body responsible for the implementation of the Convention.

See also ‘Formulation of an aligned NAP’.

National action programme (NAP)

Description of the practical steps and measures to be taken to combat desertification in specific ecosystems. NAPs are developed in the framework of a participative approach involving local communities and shall be specific to DLDD as a commitment to the Convention. They shall also encompass strategies to fostering synergies with climate change adaptation/mitigation and biodiversity conservation.

Source: http://www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/Action-programmes/Pages/default.aspx

National capacity self-assessment (NCSA)

Global programme funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), to enable countries to carry out a systematic assessment of their capacity needs to strengthen the management of national and global environmental issues, particularly with regard to the Rio conventions.

Source: GEF NCSA. http://www.thegef.org/gef/pubs/NCSA

National communication strategy

A coordinated plan of action aimed at supporting the implementation of the Convention at the national level by raising awareness on DLDD and/or DLDD synergies with biodiversity and climate change. It identifies national communication goals, target audiences and planned activities.

National poverty Line

Poverty line deemed appropriate for the country by its authorities. National estimates are based on population-weighted sub-group estimates from household surveys.

National Poverty Rate

The percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

Source: http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_pov_hea_rat_at_nat_pov_lin_of_pop-headcount-ratio-national-line-population

Nationwide Census

A survey of all people in the country. A census is a survey conducted on the full set of observation objects belonging to a given population or universe.

Source: http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=301

NDVI Standard deviation (STD)

The root mean square deviation of the NDVI time series values (annual) from their arithmetic mean. It is a measure of statistical dispersion, measuring the spread of NDVI values.

Source: MODIS Atmosphere. http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/NDVI/index.html

Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

The net flux of carbon from the atmosphere into green plants per unit time. NPP refers to a rate process, i.e., the amount of vegetable matter produced (net primary production) per day, week, or year. NPP is a fundamental ecological variable, not only because it measures the energy input to the biosphere and terrestrial carbon dioxide assimilation, but also because of its significance in indicating the condition of the land surface area and the status of a wide range of ecological processes.

Source : http://daac.ornl.gov/NPP/html_docs/npp_est.html

NFP

National focal point

Non Stratified Random Survey

A survey that takes random samples from a population that has not been divided into subgroups according to specified criteria, such as administrative units.

See also ‘Stratified random survey’.

Source: http://www.statpac.com/surveys/sampling.htm

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

An estimate of the photosynthetically absorbed radiation over the land surface.

See also ‘Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)’.

Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/MeasuringVegetation/

Official Development Assistance (ODA)

Grants or loans to countries and territories in Part I of the DAC List of Aid Recipients (developing countries) which are: (a) undertaken by the official sector; (b) with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective; (c) at concessional financial terms (if a loan, having a grant element of at least 25 per cent). In addition to financial flows, technical cooperation is included in aid. Grants, loans and credits for military purposes are excluded. Transfer payments to private individuals (e.g. pensions, reparations or insurance payouts) are in general not counted.

Source: Adapted from OECD Development Assistance Committee). Glossary of Key Terms. http://www.oecd.org/document/32/0,3746,en_2649_34447_42632800_1_1_1_1,00.html

Official document

A document is deemed official when it is publicly published in its final version by the institution concerned and/or is endorsed by the State, or published on the Internet or as hard copy.

Operational mechanisms for joint implementation or mutual reinforcement

Mechanisms in place at the national level aimed at fostering synergies among the three Rio conventions. These may include, inter alia:

  • Scheduling of regular meetings between the focal points of the three Rio Conventions and their focal point teams.
  • Establishment of a national coordinating committee for the joint implementation of the three Rio Conventions including, as appropriate, mainstreaming into sustainable development strategies, the Millennium Development Goals and other relevant sectors and strategies.
  • Establishment of national collaborative processes on synergies in reporting, involving national focal points and their representatives from the Rio conventions. These processes would be established with the aim of enhancing coordination and synergies when reporting to the respective conventions, as appropriate, by formalizing information-sharing processes and building institutional linkages between the ministries responsible for the implementation of each Convention, and by maximizing stakeholder interaction and active participatory processes.

Source: Adapted from UNEP/CBD/COP/DEC/IX/16, Annex II: indicative list of activities by Parties to promote synergies among the Rio Conventions, decision 9/COP.10

Operational objectives

Operational-level objectives defined in the context of The Strategy to guide the actions of all UNCCD stakeholders and partners in the short and medium term with a view to supporting the attainment of the 2008–2018 vision and strategic objectives. More specifically, The Strategy defines the following operational objectives:

  • Operational objective 1: To actively influence relevant international, national and local processes and actors in adequately addressing DLDD-related issues.
  • Operational objective 2: To support the creation of enabling environments for promoting solutions to combat desertification/land degradation and mitigate the effects of drought.
  • Operational objective 3: To become a global authority on scientific and technical knowledge desertification/land degradation and mitigation of the effects of drought.
  • Operational objective 4: To identify and address capacity-building needs to prevent and reverse desertification/land degradation and mitigate the effects of drought.
  • Operational objective 5: To mobilize and improve the targeting and coordination of national, bilateral and multilateral financial and technological resources in order to increase their impact and effectiveness.

Source: ICCD/COP(8)/16/Add.1 . www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/official-documents/Pages/SymbolDetail.aspx?ctx=COP(8)&k=ICCD/COP(8)/16/Add.1

Organization(s) in the programme/ project

The names of all national focal points, country desks, agency(ies) or organization(s) associated with the entire project/programme. These include civil society organizations (CSOs) and science and technology institutions (STIs).

See also ‘Civil society organizations’ and ‘Science and technology institutions’.

Outcomes

The likely or achieved short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs. Outcomes are the observable behavioral, institutional, and societal changes that take place over 3 to 10 years, usually as the result of coordinated short-term investments in individual and organizational capacity building for key development stakeholders, such as national governments, civil society, and the private sector.

Source: OECD-DAC Joint Venture on Managing for Development Results (2008) Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practice in Managing for Development Results, 3rd edition.

Outputs

Products, capital goods, and services that result from a development intervention; they may also include changes resulting from the intervention that are relevant to the achievement of outcomes.

Source: OECD-DAC Joint Venture on Managing for Development Results (2008) Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practice in Managing for Development Results, 3rd edition.

Participant

In the context of DLDD awareness raising, a participant is a person who attended an information event and whose attendance has been recorded.

See also ‘Information events’.

Partnership

A collaborative relationship between entities to work toward shared objectives through a mutually agreed division of labour. At the country level, this means engaging under government leadership with national stakeholders and external partners (including international development agencies) in developing, implementing, and monitoring a country’s own development strategy.

Source: OECD-DAC Joint Venture on Managing for Development Results (2008) Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practice in Managing for Development Results, 3rd edition

Partnership agreement

Written agreement among partners spelling out the terms and conditions of the support to be provided to affected country Parties for UNCCD implementation. In the context of UNCCD reporting a distinction is made between:

  • agreements established within the UNCCD institutional framework (e.g. agreements specifically aimed at NAP development and/or implementation in affected country Parties);
  • agreements established under frameworks other than the UNCCD (for example, agreements established under the Convention on Biological Diversity), that could be beneficial to UNCCD implementation in affected country Parties (e.g. agreements that can contribute to, or facilitate, NAP development and/or implementation).

Performance indicator

Quantitative (or qualitative) measure of the achievement of an outcome. Performance indicators compare actual conditions with a specific set of reference conditions. They measure the ‘distance(s)’ between the current situation and the desired situation (target).

Performance review and assessment of implementation system (PRAIS)

Framework for performance and implementation review of the Convention, of The Strategy and of the Convention’s stakeholders.

Source: http://www.unccd-prais.com

Population census

The total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analysing and publishing or otherwise disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specified time, to all persons in a country or in a well delimited part of a country.

Source: OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms. http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/index.htm

Potential for replication and scaling up

The extent to which investments have been or are likely to be replicated and scaled-up by government authorities, donor organizations, the private sector and other stakeholders.

Source: adapted from the OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results-Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf and from IFAD (2009). Evaluation Manual: Methodology and Processes. http://www.ifad.org/evaluation/process_methodology/index.htm

Poverty

Lack of incomes and inability to meet basic human needs. Poverty is also defined as lack of capacity to engage in productive and income earning activities.

Source: Encyclopædia Britannica. Poverty (sociology). http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/473136/poverty

Poverty line

A line drawn at a particular level of income or at a particular value of consumption. Households whose incomes fall below the level of the poverty line or whose consumption level is valued at less than the value of the poverty line are classified as poor. Households with incomes or consumption levels valued above this line are described as the non-poor. The default poverty line is US$38.00 per month. This is the World Bank US$1.25 per day poverty line (US$38=US$1.25*365/12).

Source: Ravallion, M. (1992). Poverty freak: A Guide to Concepts and Methods. Living Standards Measurement Papers. The World Bank

Practice

Any measure, method or activity.

See also ‘Good practices’ and ‘Best practices’.

Programme

Set of interventions, marshalled to attain specific global, regional, country, or sector development objectives. A development program is a time bound intervention involving multiple activities that may cut across sectors, themes and/or geographic areas.

A programme typically consists of several projects.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Programme and Project Sheet (PPS)

UNCCD reporting template designed to collect quantitative and qualitative information on individual projects and programmes relating to the implementation of the Convention and/or The Strategy.

Source: The Global Mechanism (2009), Financial annex and programme and project sheet. ICCD/CRIC(8)/5/Add.4 http://www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/official-documents/Pages/SymbolDetail.aspx?ctx=CRIC%288%29&k=ICCD/CRIC%288%29/5/Add.4

Project

Individual development intervention designed to achieve specific objectives within specified resources and implementation schedules, often within the framework of a broader program.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Project objectives

Objectives are the intended physical, financial, institutional, social, environmental or other development results to which a project or program is expected to contribute.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Project proposals

In the context of CONS-O-17, those proposals submitted to an international funding entity which are in the pipeline, i.e. being assessed by the funding entity.

Proxy indicator

Indirect and approximate measure in the unavailability of a direct measure based on a specific indicator.

Rainfall Use Efficiency (RUE)

The ratio of NPP to precipitation (P) over a given time period.

Source: Le Houerou, H. N. (1984). Rain Use Efficiency — A unifying concept in arid-land ecology. Journal of Arid Environments, 7, 213−247

Recipient Country(ies) or Sub Region

Name(s) of the country(ies), subregion(s) or region(s) in which a project, programme or other initiative is taking place or due to take place in the reporting period.

Recipient organization(s)

Organization(s) to which funds have been or will be transferred in the reporting period within the framework of a financial commitment for the implementation of a given project, programme or other initiative.

Regional organization

Regional Organizations are in a sense international organizations, as they incorporate international membership and encompass geopolitical entities that operationally transcend a single nation state. However, their membership is characterized by boundaries and demarcations characteristic to a defined and unique geography, such as continents, or geopolitics, such as economic blocks. They have been established to foster cooperation and political and economic integration or dialogue amongst states or entities within a restrictive geographical or geopolitical boundary. Regional organizations, institutions and authorities are those organizations which unite governmental organizations of one region such as the African Union, ECLAC.

Rehabilitation

Restoration to good condition, operation, or capacity. Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state, after some process (industry, natural disasters etc.) has resulted in its damage.

Relative Poverty

Represent a variable standard of living where poverty is judged relative to prevailing societal standards. It measures the extent to which a household's financial resources falls below an average income threshold for the economy.

Relative poverty lines

Defined in relation to the overall distribution of income or consumption in a country; for example, the poverty line could be set at 50 percent of the country’s mean income or consumption.

Source: World Bank Poverty Manual. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PGLP/Resources/PovertyManual.pdf

Relevance

The extent to which the objectives of an investment are consistent with beneficiaries’ requirements, country needs, the size of the problem, country priorities, development partner and donor policies, etc.

Source: adapted from the OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results-Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf and from IFAD (2009). Evaluation Manual: Methodology and Processes. http://www.ifad.org/evaluation/process_methodology/index.htm

Relevant Activity Codes (RACs)

Classification approach devised by the Global Mechanism, identifying activities that are typically put in place to combat DLDD. RACs are grouped under the following five clusters: Monitoring and research, Resource Management, Capacity Development and Planning, Risk management, and Emergency response.

Source: The Global Mechanism (2009). Relevant Activity Codes. http://www.global-mechanism.org/en/News/Updated-Relevant-Activity-Codes-RACs-for-UNCCD-reporting-released

Relevant international forums

Venues where topics specifically addressing DLDD or issues related to DLDD are treated or should be treated. They include venues at regional and subregional level that have a role in the international context as well as scientific and academic forums internationally or regionally recognized.

Remote sensing

Practice of acquiring and using data from satellites and aerial photography to infer or measure land cover/use. Remote sensing may be used in combination with ground surveys to check the accuracy of interpretation.

Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance (GPG) for Land use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF). http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Glossary_Acronyms_BasicInfo/Glossary.pdf

Reporting Entity

Country Party to the UNCCD and/or any other organization accredited to the UNCCD which is submitting an official report on the implementation of the Convention and/or The Strategy.

Research mandated by the COP

For the purpose of measuring indicator Cons-O-12, research mandated by the COP is defined as research undertaken by science and technology networks, institutions or scientists contracted by the secretariat to undertake scientific research on issues raised by the COP.

Resource mobilization

Resource mobilization refers to the mobilization of a mix of resources which include financial, human, technical and knowledge resources

Results

Results are the output, outcome, or impact (intended or unintended, positive and negative) of an intervention.

Source: OECD-DAC Joint Venture on Managing for Development Results (2008). Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practice in Managing for Development Results, 3rd edition.

Results chain

Illustration of the causal sequence for a development intervention to achieve desired objectives, beginning with inputs, moving through activities and outputs, and culminating in outcomes, impacts, and feedback.

Source: OECD-DAC Joint Venture on Managing for Development Results (2008). Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practice in Managing for Development Results, 3rd edition

Results-based management

An approach aimed at achieving important changes in the way that organizations operate, with improving performance in terms of results as the central orientation. It provides the management frameworks and tools for strategic planning, risk management, performance monitoring, and evaluation.

Source: OECD-DAC Joint Venture on Managing for Development Results (2008). Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practice in Managing for Development Results, 3rd edition

Rio marker (RM)

Indicators developed by the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) in response to a request from the secretariats of the three Rio Conventions to identify aid activities targeting the objectives of the three Conventions.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002). Reporting Directives for the Creditor Reporting System, Addendum. DCD/DAC(2002)21/ADD. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/46/35646074.pdf and http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/16/53/1948102.pdf

Role of the organization

The description of the role of the organization(s)/agency(ies) in the project/programme.

Rural Poverty Line

Level at which people in rural areas are considered poor.

Rural poverty rate

Rural poverty rate is the percentage of the rural population living above the national rural poverty line.

Satellite image

An image of the Earth’s surface made by means of artificial satellites.

Science and technology institutions (STIs)

Bodies dealing with science and technology, from either the private or the public sector, thus also including governmental institutions.

Science and technology network (STNs)

Networks dealing with science and technology in which institutions may be included as nodes, thus also overlapping with institutions

Scientists

Individuals dealing with science and technology from either an academic or a policy perspective, thus including government and non-government employees.

Source of funding

Organization(s) supporting financially a given project, programme or initiative.

Spatial resolution

For spatial data stored in raster form, it is an indication of the size of a single pixel in ground dimensions. It is usually presented as a single value that represents the length of one side of a square. For example, a spatial resolution of 30 metres means that one pixel represents an area of 30 metres by 30 metres on the ground.

Source: Born, M. & Wolf, E (1999). Principles of Optics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Standard Financial Annex (SFA)

Financial reporting format of the UNCCD for listing all financial commitments made by reporting entities during the reporting period for initiatives they have financially supported at national and/or international level towards the implementation of the Convention.

Source: The Global Mechanism (2009). Financial annex and programme and project sheet. ICCD/CRIC(8)/5/Add.4. http://www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/official-documents/Pages/SymbolDetail.aspx?ctx=CRIC%288%29&k=ICCD/CRIC%288%29/5/Add.4

Start date

The date on which a project, programme or initiative has started or is due to start. In the case of a financial commitment, the start date refers to the date on which funding has been or is expected to be made available to the recipient organization.

Status

In the context of the PPS, it refers to the status of a project, programme or initiative at the time of reporting. Valid entries for this field include pipeline (i.e. project/programme proposals that have been submitted for funding in the reporting period), ongoing (i.e. projects/programmes under implementation and in an active phase), completed (i.e. projects/programmes completed or terminated in the reporting period), or inactive (i.e. projects/programmes the implementation of which has been suspended).

Strategic objectives

Higher level objectives defined in the context of The Strategy to guide the actions of all UNCCD stakeholders and partners in the 2008–2018 decade. More specifically, The Strategy defines the following strategic objectives:

  • Strategic objective 1: To improve the living conditions of affected populations
  • Strategic objective 2: To improve the condition of affected ecosystems
  • Strategic objective 3: To generate global benefits through effective implementation of the UNCCD
  • Strategic objective 4: To mobilize resources to support implementation of the Convention through building effective partnerships between national and international actors.

Source: ICCD/COP(8)/16/Add.1. www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/official-documents/Pages/SymbolDetail.aspx?ctx=COP(8)&k=ICCD/COP(8)/16/Add.1

Stratified random sampling

A method of sampling that involves the division of a population into smaller groups known as strata. In stratified random sampling, the strata are formed based on members' shared attributes or characteristics. A random sample from each stratum is taken in a number proportional to the stratum's size when compared to the population. These subsets of the strata are then pooled to form a random sample.

Source: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/stratified_random_sampling.asp#ixzz1h4mKgwhE

Stratified Random Survey

A survey that takes random samples from a population that has been divided into subgroups according to specified criteria, such as administrative units

Source: http://www.statpac.com/surveys/sampling.htm

Subregional organization

International organizations which incorporate international membership and encompass geopolitical entities that operationally transcend a single nation state. Their membership is characterized by boundaries and demarcations characteristic to a defined and unique geography, such as continents, or geopolitics, such as economic blocks. They have been established to foster cooperation and political and economic integration or dialogue amongst states or entities within a restrictive geographical or geopolitical boundary. Subregional organizations, institutions and authorities unite governmental organizations of one subregion, such as CILSS, OSS.

See also ‘International organization’.

Successfully submitted proposals

In the context of CONS-O-17, those project proposals that have been approved by the international funding entity and are ongoing.

Sum NDVI

The sum of fortnightly NDVI values for the year most nearly aggregates annual biomass productivity.

Source: Berry et al (2009). UNCCD Recommended Minimum set of Impact Indicators. http://www.unccd.int/en/programmes/Science/Monitoring-Assessment/Documents/Final-Report_UNCCD-Min-Set-of-Impact-Indicators.pdf

Sustainability

In the context of development investments, the likelihood that the benefit streams generated by an investment continue beyond the phase of initial support. It also includes an assessment of the likelihood that actual and anticipated results will be resilient to risks beyond the project’s life.

Source: adapted from the OECD/DAC (2002). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results-Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf and from IFAD (2009). Evaluation Manual: Methodology and Processes. http://www.ifad.org/evaluation/process_methodology/index.htm

Sustainable land management (SLM)

The use of land resources, including soils, water, animals and plants, for the production of goods to meet changing human needs, while simultaneously ensuring the long-term productive potential of these resources and the maintenance of their environmental functions.

Source: http://www.wocat.net/en/vision-mission/sustainable-land-management.html

Sustainable land management (SLM) technology

An intervention at the field level (on cropland, grazing land, forest land, or other land) which maintains or enhances the productive capacity of the land in areas affected by or prone to degradation (including prevention or reduction of soil erosion, compaction and salinity; conservation or drainage of soil water; maintenance or improvement of soil fertility, etc.). A technology consists of one or more measures belonging to the following categories: agronomic measures (e.g. intercropping, contour cultivation, mulching), vegetative measures (e.g. tree planting, hedge barriers, grass strips), structural measures (e.g. graded banks or bunds, level bench terrace), management measures (e.g. land use change, area closure, rotational grazing).

Target

A quantitative value usually referring to international policy objectives. Often, the target has a time deadline that should be met. Targets express ‘desired situations’. Targets refer to various geographical levels: targets at country level (i.e. national targets) contribute to achieving the overall targets set at the global level.

Target groups

The specific individuals or organizations for whose benefit the development intervention is undertaken.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2009). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Technical resources

Technical resources refers to instrumental resources or tools such as technologies, machineries, laboratories, hardware equipment, etc.

Technical support

Physical aid (material aid - machines, hardware or software) and knowledge aid (technical assistance or know-how).

Technology transfer

The deployment, diffusion, and transfer of innovative technologies and know-how with the purpose of ensuring that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users.

Temporal Resolution

The precision of a measurement with respect to time. Often there is a trade-off between temporal resolution of a measurement and its spatial resolution.

Tenure

Property rights. The right to specific uses of ecosystems and their services.

Source: adapted from Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Current State & Trends Assessment Report. http://www.maweb.org/en/Condition.aspx

Time scale

The frequency of measurements required to obtain the information. In other words, when, and how frequently a given indicator must be measured to represent a phenomenon and its trend in time.

Source: Enne G. & Zucca C. (2000). Desertification indicators for the European Mediterranean region. State of the art and possible methodological approaches. ANPA, Rome.

Title

Name of a programme or project either in the pipeline (i.e. proposal submitted for financing), under implementation or completed within the reporting period.

Type of funding

The type of funding provided in support of a project, programme or initiative within the reporting period. Examples of funding types include grants, concessional loans, commercial loans, basket funding, sectoral support, debt swap, equity, etc.

Validity

The extent to which the data collection strategies and instruments measure what they purport to measure.

Source: OECD Development Assistance Committee (2002.) Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804.pdf

Variability of Surface Climate Observations (VASClimO)

Joint climate research project of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) at the German Met Service (DWD) and the Institute for Atmosphere and Environment – Working Group for Climatology at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt.

A dataset consisting of gridded monthly precipitation data for the global land areas (excluding Greenland and Antarctica) from 1951 to 2000. It is gridded at three different resolutions (0.5° lat/lon, 1.0° lat/lon, 2.5° lat/lon). The dataset is now available for use in scientific research and can be downloaded as version 1.1 dated August 2005.

Source: Beck, C., J. Grieser and B. Rudolf (2005). A New Monthly Precipitation Climatology for the Global Land Areas for the Period 1951 to 2000. Published in Climate Status Report 2004, pp. 181 - 190, German Weather Service, Offenbach, Germany. http://www.juergen-grieser.de/downloads/VASClimO/vasclimo.htm

Venture philanthropy

This style of philanthropy applies concepts and techniques from venture capital finance to achieve philanthropic goals and create social return.

Source: JP Morgan ( 2010). Impact Investments – An Emerging Asset Class. J.P. Morgan Global Research

Vulnerability

Exposure to contingencies and stress, and the difficulty in coping with them. Three major dimensions of vulnerability are involved: exposure to stresses, perturbations, and shocks; the sensitivity of people, places, ecosystems, and species to the stress or perturbation, including their capacity to anticipate and cope with the stress; and the resilience of the exposed people, places, ecosystems, and species in terms of their capacity to absorb shocks and perturbations while maintaining function.

Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Current State & Trends Assessment Report. http://www.maweb.org/en/Condition.aspx

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